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05. Sedimentary cover of DP of biogenic origin.

After the formation of the sedimentary cover of volcanic origin on the ocean floor of the Ancient Planet, a period favorable for genetic forms of life has come.

On the Ancient Planet, covered by the ocean of water, spores are stored from space, storing in themselves the powerful genetic code embedded in them by the "Creator of cellular life". Meteorites. The unfolding of the code of the genome into biomass and the artificial formation of the biosphere of the planet begins - terraforming.

Photo-111. Microscopic algae in the water. Oceanic consumers of CO2.

On the surface of the sedimentary cover of volcanic origin is a sedimentary cover of biogenic origin - limestones and shells.

Video-112. A video about the structure and origin of limestone. (The video is linked to time 27 min 42 sec duration 2 minutes 15 seconds.). "Sedimentary cover of biogenic origin" https://youtu.be/MKI-vUkjz5I?t=1662

Shells.

"Shells of marine rhizomes cover about a third of the bottom of the World Ocean and make up three quarters of all oceanic sediments. They formed powerful layers of limestone and chalk. Of limestone, consisting of these shells (once settled on the bottom of the sea, which was in place of the modern desert of the Sahara), built pyramids of Egyptian pharaohs. "

Photo-113. Pyramids of Egyptian pharaohs. Nummulitic limestone.

"Now we know about 1 thousand species of rhizomes-foraminifera and almost 30 times more - fossil species of these protozoa."

Photo-114. Shells. The simplest Foraminifera. Foraminifera.

"If the life of most foraminifera runs on the seabed, the radiolarians spend it in the" hovering "in the thickness of the sea water. To "hover" are the needles of their skeleton, increasing the area of ​​the body. Radiolarians can, like a kind of umbrella, spread their body on skeletal needles, and can also squeeze it lightly. The larger the area of ​​their body, the smaller the specific gravity. By changing the area of ​​the body, radiolarians can float up, and can go into the depths of the ocean. In total, about 8,000 species of these protozoans are known to science.

His prey radiolarii caught many thin threads - pseudopods, diverging from the center of their body in all directions. Propagation of radiolarians resembles the reproduction of foraminifera. The body of the parent is divided into many newborns - radiolarians, still devoid of the skeleton, but equipped with flagella. Their name is vagabond. The parental skeleton for the new generation, alas, is lost. The empty skeletons of radionaria acantharia dissolve in water (they consist of soluble sulphate strontium). But in the remaining radiolarians, the skeletons are constructed of insoluble silica (?), And, empty, they sink to the bottom. Layering, they form colossal deposits ... "( source )

Photo-115. Shells. Radiolarians. Radiolaria.

Life on the DP flourishes and evolves into increasingly complex multicellular forms. In water.

Photo-116. Large ammonite. The comparative size.

Shells, after the death of the organism settle on the ocean floor, forming limestone.

Photo-117. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock. General view of the rocks.

Photo-118. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock. General view of rocks from outer space. ( wikimapia )

Photo-119. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock. Close-up.

Photo-120. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock. Close-up.

Photo-121. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock. Close-up.

Photo-122. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Shell rock.

Photo-123. Crimea. Cape Fiolent. Spiral wound sink

(I did not find an analogue, M. Trochus, refers to the types of a hot belt).

Photo-124. Sedimentary rocks. A group of carbonate rocks. Limestones. ( source )

Limestone was formed at the bottom of the ocean, under water. Now the rocks of shell rock, limestone are OVER the surface of the water. And so on the whole planet!

Twelve Apostles is a group of limestone cliffs on the Indian Ocean coast in the territory of Port Campbell National Park.

Photo-125. Australia. The Twelve Apostles. Limestone. ( wikimapia )

Photo-126. White cliffs of Dover on the coast of the English Channel. England. Limestone. ( wikimapia )

Photo-127. White cliffs of Dover on the coast of the English Channel. England. Limestone.

Photo-128. White cliffs of Dover on the coast of the English Channel. England. Limestone.

Photo-129. Cretaceous rocks of Etretat on the coast of the English Channel. France. ( wikimapia )

Photo-130. Cretaceous rocks of Etretat. France. The coast of the English Channel. Limestone.

The island of Rügen. Germany.

"Rügen is an island in Germany, the largest in the country. It is located in the Baltic Sea near the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The island is similar to a large blot (area 926.4 km2). The length of the coastal strip of Rügen, the island famous for its beautiful Cretaceous rocks, is 574 kilometers. "

Photo-131. The island of Rügen. Germany. Baltic Sea. Limestone. ( Wikimapia )

Photo-132. The island of Rügen. Germany. Baltic Sea. Limestone.

Photo-133. The island of Rügen. Germany. Baltic Sea. Limestone.

Photo-134. Fragment of the Jurassic limestone quarry in the Zolnhofen area, Germany. The depth of the quarry is 40-50 m. ( Source )

Photo-135. Cretaceous island of Mons-Clint in Denmark. Baltic Sea. Limestone. ( wikimapia )

Photo-136. Cretaceous Bornholm Island. Baltic Sea. Limestone. ( wikimapia )

Limestone - white in the whole monolith. This means that for all the time of its formation nearby there was no land (= erosion), no volcanism.

Photo-137. City Melnik (from the word chalk). Bulgaria. Limestone.

Photo-138. Kazakhstan. The national reserve Ustyurt. A piece of chalk. Limestone. Erosion from the movement of large masses of water is not of rain origin.

Photo-138. Kazakhstan. The national reserve Ustyurt. A piece of chalk. Limestone. Erosion from the movement of large masses of water is not of rain origin.

Photo-140. Turkmenistan. Limestone.

Photo-141. Ukraine. In 135 km from Kharkov. Limestone.

Photo-142. Ukraine. Cretaceous slaves of Slavyansk. Limestone.

In the interior of the Crimea there are many table mountains from the chalk.

Photo-143. Crimea. Table mountain Mangup-Kale in the form of four fingers. White limestone at the foot of the mountain. Limestone cliffs in the neighborhood. ( wikimapia )

Photo-144. Crimea. Cretaceous mountain near Mangup (north). The lower part of the mountain is chalk, the upper part is shell rock.

Photo-145. Crimea. The southern foot of Mount Mangup-Kale. Limestone.

Photo-146. Crimea. The southern foot of Mount Mangup-Kale. Limestone with traces of shells.

Photo-147. Crimea. Table mountain from limestone Eski Kermen. Grotto, 7 meters below the surface.

Photo-148. Mount Eski Kermen. Crimea. The appearance of the walls of the grotto.

Photo-149. Nummulites Foraminifera, 2 cm in diameter. From the grotto of Eski Kermen. Crimea.

"Nummulite shells overflow in places with huge thicknesses of nummulite limestones, widely distributed over the earth's surface and exposed even on the snowy peaks of the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Himalayan mountains, undoubtedly testifying that in comparatively recent geological times these mountains did not exist and the vast Eocene ocean, at the bottom of which mymiads were buried nummulites and other modern organisms. The main material used in the construction of the famous Egyptian pyramids was Nummulitic limestone. " ( wikipedia )

Photo-150. Sea urchin, 5cm in diameter. From the grotto of Eski Kermen. Crimea. They refer to the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era 70-135 million years.

Photo-151. Crimea. Belbek Canyon. Chalk and shell rock. Table mountains.

Photo-152. Crimea. Belbek Canyon. Chalk and shell rock. Table mountains.

Photo-153. White cliff of Ak-Kaya, Crimea. Limestone, shell rock.

Photo-154. White cliff of Ak-Kaya, Crimea. Limestone, shell rock.

Photo-155. Crimea. Chufut-Calais. Table mountain. Chalk and shell rock.

Photo-156. Turkey. Pamukkale. Cretaceous mountain. Limestone.

Photo-157. Turkey. Pamukkale. Cretaceous mountain. Limestone.

Photo-158. Russia. Divnomorskoe. East coast of the Black Sea. Cretaceous rocks. Limestone. ( wikimapia )

Photo-159. Russia. Voronezh region The village of Kostomarovo. Cretaceous hills.

Photo-160. Russia. Voronezh region The village of Kostomarovo. Cretaceous hills.

Photo-161. Russia. A piece of chalk. Not far from the confluence of the Kazennyi Torets River into the Seversky Donets River.

Photo-162. Russia. Cretaceous mountains of the valley. Limestone.

Photo-163. Russia. Cretaceous mountains of Khvalynsk. Saratov Region

The Lena Pillars. Lena river. Russia.

"They are in the Khangalassky ulus of Yakutia, 104 km from the city of Pokrovsk ( Wikimapia ). Rock formations, whose height reaches 220 meters above the river level (absolute elevations - up to 321 m), are composed of Cambrian limestones. "

Photo-164. The Lena Pillars. Limestone. General view of the Lena River.

Photo-165. The Lena Pillars. General view of the limestone hills.

Photo-166. The Lena Pillars. Limestone.

Photo-167. The Lena Pillars. Limestone. Comparative size with a pleasure boat.

Photo-168. The Taimyr Peninsula. Limestone is a mineral that is characteristic of Taimyr.

Photo-169. Anabar plateau. Over the valley of Kotuikan - strata of ancient stromatolites. Limestone. ( source-1 , source-2 )

Photo-170. Anabar plateau. The Kotuikan River. Limestone.

Photo-171. Anabar plateau. The Kotuikan River. Stromatolites. Limestone.

Photo-172. Vilyuyskoe plateau. Siberia. The Vilyui River. Limestone.

Photo-173. USA. Badlands National Park (= bad lands). Blurred limestone. ( wikimapia )

Rocks of the Bund. "A large piece of limestone, an area of ​​270,000 square kilometers and a length of ~ 1000 km from east to west. Located in the Great Australian Gulf, South Australia. " ( Wikimapia )

Photo-174. Australia. Rocks of the Bund. 81 000 km3 of limestone.

"Above the white limestone of Wilson are whitish, gray or brown layers of limestone or crystalline rocks. In some layers there are also petrified remains of marine animals, including worms and mollusks, indicating that the layers were formed in the ocean. The other layers consist entirely of marine sediments. The tops of the rock consist of a strong rock, the age of which varies from 1.6 million to 100 thousand years, consisting of wind-borne sand. The thickness of this limestone reaches 300 meters, but only the upper part of it is visible in the rocks of the Bund. "

Interesting fact.

In the Bund rocks alone there are 81,000 km3 of limestone. It is locked in 60 300 times more carbon dioxide than it is in the Earth's atmosphere. This is only 5.2 times less than carbon dioxide on Venus. If you release all carbon dioxide from limestone Bund rocks into the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure will increase 19 times.

Photo-175. Australia. Rocks of the Bund. Limestone.

The example of Australia shows that on the surface of pure limestone, a thickness of almost 300 meters, lies a thick layer of volcanic sedimentary rocks, mixed with limestone. The form of the table mountain is the formation of a deep ocean in the aquatic environment. After a favorable long period, pre-catastrophic times occur. Tidal deformations and volcanic eruptions begin.

06. Erosion of the sedimentary cover of the Ancient Planet.

The origin of the Earth, in pictures (345 photos). Part-4.

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